What are brain disorders?

Your brain is your body’s center. It’s a part of the central nervous system, which also includes the medulla spinalis and an outsized network of nerves and neurons. Together, this controls everything from your senses to the muscles throughout your body.  

When your brain is damaged due to any reason, it will affect various things in your body, including your sensation, your memory, and even your personality. Brain disorders include any type of disabilities or conditions that might affect your brain adversely. This includes conditions that are caused by:  

  • illness  
  • genetics  
  • traumatic injury  

This is a broad category of disorders, which is having different types of symptoms and different level of severity. In this article, Dr. Gurneet Sawhney who is a Mumbai based Neurosurgeon will discuss some of the most important categories of brain disorders.  

What are the various sorts of brain disorders?  

Brain injuries  

Brain injuries are often caused by external injury such as accidents. Trauma can damage neurons, brain tissue, and nerves. This damage impacts your brain’s ability to actively communicate with the rest of your body. A few examples of brain injuries include the following:  

  • hematomas  
  • blood clots  
  • contusions, or bruising of brain tissue  
  • cerebral edema, or swelling inside the skull  
  • concussions  
  • strokes  

Symptoms include:  

  • vomiting  
  • nausea  
  • speech difficulty  
  • bleeding from the ear  
  • numbness  
  • paralysis  
  • memory loss  
  • problems with concentration  

Later, you’ll develop:  

  • high BP   
  • a low pulse   
  • pupil dilation  
  • irregular breathing  

Depending on the sort of injury you’ve got, treatment may include medication, rehabilitation, or operation. According to the neurosurgeons, about half of the people with severe brain injuries need surgery to get rid of or repair damaged tissue or to alleviate pressure. People with minor brain injuries might not need any treatment beyond pain medication. Many people with brain injuries need rehabilitation. this will include:  

  • physical therapy  
  • speech and language therapy  
  • psychiatry Brain tumors  

Sometimes, tumors form within the brain and may be very dangerous. These are commonly called primary brain tumors. In other cases, cancer elsewhere in your body spreads to your brain which is known as secondary or metastatic brain tumors.  

Brain tumors are often either malignant (cancerous) or benign (noncancerous). Doctors classify brain tumors as grades 1, 2, 3, or 4 on the basis of their severity. Higher numbers indicate more aggressive tumors.  

The explanation for brain tumors is still unknown. They will occur in people of any age. Symptoms of brain tumors depend upon the dimensions and site of the tumor. the foremost common symptoms of brain tumors are:  

  • headaches  
  • seizures  
  • numbness or tingling in your arms or legs  
  • nausea  
  • vomiting  
  • changes in personality  
  • difficulty with movement or balance  
  • changes in your hearing, speech, or vision  

The type of treatment you’ll receive depends on many various factors, like the dimensions of the tumor, your age, and your overall health. the most sorts of treatment for brain tumors are:  

  • surgery  
  • chemotherapy  
  • radiation therapy  

Neurodegenerative diseases  

This type of diseases deteriorate your brain and nerves over time. They will change your personality and cause confusion & will also destroy your brain’s tissue and nerves.  

Some brain diseases, like Alzheimer’s disease, may develop as you age. They will slowly impair your memory and thought processes. Other diseases, like Tay-Sachs disease, are genetic and start at an early age. Other common neurodegenerative diseases include:  

  • Huntington’s disease  
  • ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), or Lou Gehrig’s disease  
  • Parkinson’s disease • all sorts of dementia  

Symptoms include:  

  • memory loss  
  • forgetfulness  
  • apathy  
  • anxiety  
  • agitation  
  • a loss of inhibition  
  • mood changes  

Neurodegenerative diseases cause permanent damage, so symptoms tend to become worse as the disease progresses. New symptoms also are likely to develop over time. Treatment for these diseases tries to scale back symptoms and maintain quality of life. Treatment often involves the utilization of medicines to regulate symptoms.  

Mental disorders  

Mental disorders, or mental illnesses, are an outsized and diverse group of conditions that affect your behavior patterns. A number of the foremost frequently diagnosed mental disorders are:  

  • depression  
  • anxiety  
  • bipolar disorder  
  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  
  • schizophrenia  

You must ask your doctor if you notice a change in your behavior, thought patterns, or moods. The two major sorts of treatment for mental disorders are medication and psychotherapy. Different methods work better for various conditions. Many of us find that a mixture of the 2 is that the best.  

If you think that you would possibly have a mental disturbance, it’s important to speak to your doctor for a treatment plan that works for you. There are many resources available — don’t attempt to self-medicate.  

What are the danger factors for brain disorders 

Brain disorders can affect anyone. Risk factors are different for various sorts of brain disorders.  

Traumatic brain injury is mostly seen in children under 4 years old, young adults between 15 and 25 years old, and adults 65 and older.  

Older age and case history are the foremost significant risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases.  

Mental disorders are quite common. Your risk could also be higher if you:  

  • have a case history of mental disease.  
  • have traumatic or stressful life experiences.  
  • have a history of misusing alcohol or drugs.  
  • have a traumatic brain injury.